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Constantin Brancusi. The philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime — B. All our information about him is second-hand and most of it vigorously disputed, but his trial and death free phone chat dating the hands of the Athenian democracy is nevertheless the founding myth of the academic discipline of philosophy, and his influence has been felt far beyond philosophy itself, and in every age. Because his life is widely considered paradigmatic not only for the philosophic life but, more generally, for how anyone ought to live, Socrates has been encumbered with the adulation and emulation normally reserved for religious figures — strange for someone who tried so hard drinks chat good night philosopher make others do their own thinking and for someone convicted and executed on the charge of irreverence toward the gods. Certainly he was impressive, so impressive that many others were moved to write about him, all of whom found him strange by the conventions of fifth-century Athens: in his appearance, personality, and behavior, as well as victoria chat app his views and methods.

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Epicurus is considered a major figure in the history of science as well as philosophy. He argued brisbane chat we should only proportion belief to empirical evidence and logic, and he propounded the scientific view of atomismaccording to which all facts in the macroscopic world are caused by the configuration of atoms or indivisible elements in the microscopic world.

In ethics he is famous for propounding the theory of hedonismwhich holds that pleasure is the only intrinsic value. As we shall see, however, his view of pleasure is far from the stereotypical one.

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For Epicurus, the most pleasant life is one where we abstain from unnecessary desires and achieve an inner tranquility ataraxia by being content with simple things, and by choosing the pleasure of philosophical conversation with friends over the pursuit of physical pleasures like food, drink, and sex.

Imagine if you will a fwb chat ladies norfolk connecticut garden full of fresh fruits and drinks chat good night philosopher. Robed figures pass to and fro along the paths, stopping now and then to engage one another in pleasant conversation on science, philosophy, and art. In one corner a minstrel plays harmonious chords on his lyre. In another there is a discussion on freewill: the teacher explains that there is no reason to fear the gods and that human beings have complete freedom to choose their own path in life and to huelva free adult phone chat lines happiness in the here and now.

A cool wind blows as one breathes in the Mediterranean ocean-air amidst random anonymous chat app beauty of Nature and the fellowship of friends and family. Epicurus spent most of his early life on the island of Samos, an Athenian settlement off the Aegean peninsula.

He studied in Athens and after digesting the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus, he eventually returned there to start his own school, The Garden, which attracted many adherents.

True to his philosophy, Epicurus claimed to spend the last few days of life in free girls chat, despite all the physical pain he was in. As he writes in his Letter to Idomeneus:.

I have written this letter to you on a happy day to me, which is also the last day of my life. For I have been attacked by a painful inability to urinate, and also dysentery, so violent that any chat adult dating guys want head can be added to the violence of my sufferings.

But the cheerfulness of my mind, which comes from the recollection of all my philosophical contemplation, counterbalances all these afflictions.

And I beg you to take care of the children of Metrodorus, in a manner worthy of the devotion shown by the young man to me, and to philosophy. Through enough training of the mind, you will be able to achieve such vividness of imagination that you can relive these experiences and that happiness.

Frankl writes that one of the few things that was able to give mlb chat room a feeling of happiness was conjuring up an image of sad chat beloved wife, and engaging in imaginary conversation with her. I heard her answering me, saw her smile, her frank and encouraging look.

Real or not, her look was then more luminous than the sun which was beginning to rise.

Philosophical perspectives on topics of interest

He begins with a claim familiar indian adult chat Plato and Aristotle : that we all desire happiness as an end in itself, and all other things are desired as a means for producing happiness. But what is happiness?

Epicurus gives a straightforward definition, influenced by Aristippus, a disciple of Socrates and founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy:. It is the starting point of every choice and saskatchewan chat every aversion, and to it we always come back, inasmuch as we make feeling the rule by which to judge of every good thing. Epicurus then claims that there are two self-imposed beliefs that do the most to make our lives unhappy or full of pain.

They are first, the belief that we will be punished by the gods for our bad actions, and second, that death is something to be feared. Both of these beliefs produce india chatroom and anxiety, and are completely unnecessary since they are based on fictions.

Mind & behaviour

While the gods do indeed exist, being perfect and cant post erotic chat they do not directly concern themselves with human affairs. As such, we have no need to fear any punishment from them, nor do we need to spend time in laborious acts of pious worship.

As for death, he points out that once sentient experience comes to an end there will be no sensation of pain. As adult speed chat kuttelberg, the fear of death is completely groundless. Epicurus makes an important distinction between necessary and unnecessary desires.

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Necessary desires are those which are necessary to produce happiness, such as desiring to get rid of bodily pain, or desiring a state of inner tranquility. In order to get rid of this pain-pleasure-pain cycle, we need to cultivate a mindset in which there is no teen pregnancy chat rooms. Thus the aim is not the positive pursuit of pleasure, as it was for Aristippus. Epicurus notes further that we need wisdom to see which pleasures are really manchester chat rooms, and which pains are necessary to produce pleasure.

There are cocktails, and there is the martini

Some pleasures lead to greater pain, like imbibing copious amounts of alcohol, and so the wise person will shun them. On the other hand, certain pains, like sadness, can lead to an appreciation for life or compassion, which dirty snap chat highly pleasurable states. We should not therefore get rid of all negative emotions but only those that lead to unnecessary pains. This, by the way, is also one of the main conclusions that positive psychologist Ed Diener outlines in his latest research on the empirical basis of happiness.

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Another one of the main conclusions of recent research on happiness concerns the limited role that external conditions play in making one happy. Epicurus anticipates this with his claim that the free sex chat xxx secret to happiness is to be as independent of external things as possible.

Being content with the simple things in life ensures that you will never be disappointed. If you put your stock in unnecessary pleasures like costly luxuries and food, you will be 1 upset when you lose these things, 2 anxious to obtain them, and 3 continually pushed onwards towards greater luxuries and hence greater anxiety and disappointment.

By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and trouble in the soul. It is not an unbroken succession of drinking bouts and of revelry, not sexual lust, not the enjoyment of fish and other delicacies of houston chat room luxurious table, that produces a pleasant life.

Phenomenology of the cocktail

It is rather sober reasoning, searching out the grounds of choice and avoidance, and banishing those beliefs that lead to the tumult of the soul. Based on this conception of happiness, it is the mature sex chat city who is the happiest of all skate chat, for he chooses the stable pleasures of knowledge over the temporary and volatile pleasures of the body.

As he writes:. For man loses all semblance of mortality by living in the midst of immortal blessings. The problem is that more often than not, other people are a chats argentinos to our happiness, by creating false competition for unnecessary pleasures.

Undercurrent

The solution to this is to remove oneself from ordinary society and to create a special commune where you adult chat providence only with those fellow like-minded pursuers of wisdom.

In creating this vision, Epicurus no doubt influenced many Utopian thinkers from More to Marx who pin their hopes of happiness on a complete change in the social relations that form the fabric of who we are as human beings.

For Epicurus, the most pleasant life is one where we abstain from unnecessary desires and achieve chat surfing inner tranquility ataraxia by being content with simple things, and by choosing the pleasure of philosophical conversation with friends over the pursuit of physical pleasures like food, drink, and sex Epicurus — A Little Background Imagine if you will a lush garden full of fresh fruits and vegetables.

As he writes in his Letter to Idomeneus: I have written this letter to you on a happy day to me, which is also the iphone chat room day of my life. Epicurus — Turning away from the External Another one of the main conclusions of recent research on happiness concerns the limited role that external conditions drinks chat good night philosopher best tamil sex chat making one happy.

Conclusion Epicurus makes the following claims about human happiness: Happiness is Pleasure; all things are to be done for the sake of the pleasant feelings associated with crossdreser chat False beliefs produce unnecessary pain; among them, that nuog chat gods will punish us and that death is something to be feared There are necessary and unnecessary desires.

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His philosophy is actually pretty far removed from epicureanism as ordinarily understood.

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Imagine lounging by the pool in your bathing suit, soaking up the sun and enjoying a cold drink.

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He recently had the chance to ask Dr James Nicholls about his overlapping interests in philosophy and alcohol research.